The ability for any group of people, no matter how small or large, to do things better, faster and (not to mention) for cheaper is an inherent advantage in itself. Contrary to popular perceptions of societies in history, the emergence of new technologies and methods of doing things was crucial to the survival — yea, prosperity — of many ancient regimes and cultures and this is reflected in The Hellenistic Era.
In The Hellenistic Era, there are 4 different types of technologies which can be researched:
is vital for the betterment of your civilisation, as it is needed to unlock new buildings and technologies, and it provides important bonuses to the population limit, city limit and commerce cap. There are four areas of research, each with 7 levels.
Meeting House research can be divided into two different areas:
are "trunk techs" which provide access to new units and upgrades for existing units themselves. Reforms are represented by 2 levels of research. Note however that the benefits of the reforms differ between factions.
represent the political decisions you make for governing your civilisation, and are obtained from the Meeting House or Palace. There are 3 fields of policies, namely Government, Military Policy and Social Administration, and these often interact with one another.
take place at a variety of buildings, and cover many areas, with each area having three levels. Some increase the amount your citizens gather, while others improve military recruitment speed or increase your military strength. However, upgrades are only available to factions on account of their competence in the corresponding field. If a faction is highly competent in a certain area, they will receive the full line of related techs, but if not, then they may only receive 1 or 2, or even 0 if it is something the faction is weak at. As a result, upgrade availability differs from faction to faction.